A DOI digital object identifier is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency the International DOI Foundation to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the internet. It is regarded as the most important part of the citation because it will accurately direct users to the specific article. Think of it as a "digital fingerprint" or an article's DNA! American Psychological Association APA style is commonly used for citing references in student papers in science, medical, public health, health sciences and nursing as well as the social science.
The following sections provide you with information and examples that will help you to cite the sources that you come across during your research.
RefWorks is an online research management, writing and collaboration tool. It is designed to help researchers easily gather, manage, store and share all types of information, as well as generate citations and bibliographies.
You must agree to the changes in order to access your account, and all the work associated with it. If you do not agree to these changes, you will be logged out and your account will be deactivated. Some pro accounts may receive partial refunds - please visit support. Electronic books may include books found on personal websites, databases, or even in audio form. Use the following format if the book you are using is only provided in a digital format or is difficult to find in print.
If the work is not directly available online or must be purchased, use "Available from," rather than "Retrieved from," and point readers to where they can find it. For books available in print form and electronic form, include the publish date in parentheses after the author's name. For references to e-book editions, be sure to include the type and version of e-book you are referencing e. If DOIs are available, provide them at the end of the reference.
Traditional Pueblo Indian tales. Familiar birdsongs of the Northwest. To cite Kindle or other e-book formats you must include the following information: The author, date of publication, title, e-book version, and either the Digital Object Identifer DOI number, or the place where you downloaded the book. In Title of book or larger document chapter or section number. Change in the Nineties. Retrieved from GoldStar database. Use a chapter or section identifier and provide a URL that links directly to the chapter section, not the home page of the website.
Cite the information as you normally would for the work you are quoting. The first example below is from a newspaper article; the second is from a scholarly journal. In brackets, write "Review of the book" and give the title of the reviewed work. Provide the web address after the words "Retrieved from," if the review is freely available to anyone.
If the review comes from a subscription service or database, write "Available from" and provide the information where the review can be purchased. Natural women [Review of the book Girls like us ]. Transitions in reading and culture, and Joyce's messianism: Dante, negative existence, and the messianic self].
Modern Fiction Studies, 50 1 , A neuroprotective treatment target in Parkinson's disease. Often encyclopedias and dictionaries do not provide bylines authors' names. When no byline is present, move the entry name to the front of the citation.
Provide publication dates if present or specify n. A Select Annotated Bibliography. Point readers to raw data by providing a web address use "Retrieved from" or a general place that houses data sets on the site use "Available from".
Indiana income limits [Data file]. Give the name of the researching organization followed by the date. In brackets, provide a brief explanation of what type of data is there and in what form it appears.
Finally, provide the project name and retrieval information. Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment. If an interview is not retrievable in audio or print form, cite the interview only in the text not in the reference list and provide the month, day, and year in the text.
If an audio file or transcript is available online, use the following model, specifying the medium in brackets e. Oral History 2 [Interview transcript]. When citing online lecture notes, be sure to provide the file format in brackets after the lecture title e.
PowerPoint slides, Word document. Duality in consumer theory [PDF document]. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Website: Federal regulations of chemicals in the environment [PowerPoint slides]. List as much of the following information as possible you sometimes have to hunt around to find the information; don't be lazy. If there is a page like http: When an Internet document is more than one web page, provide a URL that links to the home page or entry page for the document.
Also, if there isn't a date available for the document use n. Do not cite standard office software e. Word, Excel or programming languages. Provide references only for specialized software. Optimality Theory Software Version 2.
APA requires that all pages of the article be listed (For example: pp. A1, A4 as opposed to using the + sign in MLA). Use letter to indicate the appropriate section. More Information: See page in the 6th edition of the APA manual for further explanation.
APA Citation Style, 6th edition: Newspaper Article. A guide to help users create citations using APA (American Psychological Association) style, 6th edition. APA Toggle Dropdown. General Style Guidelines Books Toggle Dropdown. One Author or Editor.
Alternatively, you can integrate the citation into the sentence by means of narrative. There must be a total match between the reference list and the parenthetical citation, so the article title must stand in place of an author’s name in the essay. 2) Alternatively, the citation may be integrated into the sentence with a signal phrase and narrative: Sisler () reported the amount of time allowed before declaring cardiac death is considerably less in .
If the pages of the article do not run consecutively, indicate the beginning page of the article followed by a + sign. NOTE: For more information on journal article citations, s . APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in .