The reference should look like this: Place a period after each fact. Italicize the name of the movie. Place a colon between the studio location and name of the studio. Place the word "director" and the year in parenthesis.
Place the film format in brackets. Reference the film in-text by placing the director of the movie in parentheses followed by the year the movie was released. Italicize the name of the movie when referencing it in the the essay. Cite the movie in the references section using the tile of the movie, the format, the director, the year released into theaters, the location where the movie was filmed, the producer of the movie and the release date of the video copy.
Reference the citation like this: Name of film italicized. Directed by Director's first name and last name. Year of theatrical release; Location of the studio City, State abbreviation: Film distributor, home viewing release year. Cite the film in essay by the title of the film only. Place quotation marks around the title, rather than italicizing the title.
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Report structure Analysing issues for a report Business report What is a business report? Business report structure Inductive vs. Lab report structure Science lab report writing resources Psychology lab report writing resources Literature review What is a literature review? Plagiarism Common knowledge Referencing styles What type of source is this? There are many reasons why it is important to reference sources correctly: It shows the reader that you can find and use sources to create a solid argument It properly credits the originators of ideas, theories, and research findings It shows the reader how your argument relates to the big picture For a detailed discussion, see why reference?
What needs to be referenced? Referencing is needed when: List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses. When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above. If possible, cite an electronic document the same as any other document by using the author-date style.
Unknown Author and Unknown Date: If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n. Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring "Tutoring and APA," n.
When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited. If the paragraphs are not numbered and the document includes headings, provide the appropriate heading and specify the paragraph under that heading. Note that in some electronic sources, like Web pages, people can use the Find function in their browser to locate any passages you cite.
According to Smith , Mind over Matter section, para. Never use the page numbers of Web pages you print out; different computers print Web pages with different pagination. In the text, place a superscript numeral immediately after the text about which you would like to include more information, e.
Scientists examined the fossilized remains of the wooly-wooly yak. At the end of the paper, create a separate page labeled Notes with the title centered at the top of the page. Below are examples of two kinds of notes.
Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text.
Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page References with no quotation marks, underlining, etc. It should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay. The following rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work book, article, electronic resource, etc. Last name first, followed by author initials. Friendship quality and social development.
Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11 , List by their last names and initials. Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65 , If there are more than six authors, list the first six as above and then "et al. Writing labs and the Hollywood connection. Journal of Film and Writing, 44 3 , Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary 10th ed. When your essay includes parenthetical citations of sources with no author named, use a shortened version of the source's title instead of an author's name.
Use quotation marks and italics as appropriate. For example, parenthetical citations of the two sources above would appear as follows: Merriam-Webster's , and "New Drug," Use the author's name for all entries and list the entries by the year earliest comes first.
When an author appears both as a sole author and, in another citation, as the first author of a group, list the one-author entries first. Friends' influence on students' adjustment to school. Educational Psychologist, 34 , Friends' influence on adolescents' adjustment to school. Child Development, 66 , Flexible corrections of juror judgments: Implications for jury instructions.
Effects of mood on high elaboration attitude change: The mediating role of likelihood judgments. European Journal of Social Psychology, 24 , If you are using more than one reference by the same author or the same group of authors listed in the same order published in the same year, organise them in the reference list alphabetically by the title of the article or chapter. Then assign letter suffixes to the year. Refer to these sources in your essay as they appear in your reference list, e.
Age changes and changes over time in prosocial intentions and behavior between friends. Developmental Psychology, 17 , Effects of friendship on prosocial intentions and behavior. Child Development, 52 , APA style dictates that authors are named last name followed by initials; publication year goes between parentheses, followed by a period.
The title of the article is in sentence-case, meaning only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalised. The periodical title is run in title case, and is followed by the volume number which, with the title, is also italicized or underlined.
Title of Periodical, volume number issue number , pages. Journals that are paginated by volume begin with page one in issue one, and continue numbering issue two where issue one ended, etc.
Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55 , Journals paginated by issue begin with page one every issue; therefore, the issue number gets indicated in parentheses after the volume.
The parentheses and issue number are not italicized or underlined. The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15 30 , Making the grade in today's schools. Time, , Unlike other periodicals, p. Single pages take p. B2; multiple pages take pp. B2, B4 or pp. Calls made to strengthen state energy policies.
The Country Today , pp. Ripples versus rumbles [Letter to the editor]. Scientific American, 2 , Exposing the self-knowledge myth [Review of the book The self-knower: A hero under control ].
Contemporary Psychology, 38 , Capital letter also for subtitle. For "Location," you should always list the city, but you should also include the state if the city is unfamiliar or if the city could be confused with one in another state.
APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Consequences of growing up poor. A philosophical essay on probabilities. Original work published When you cite a republished work, like the one above, work in your text, it should appear with both dates: The battered child 5th ed. University of Chicago Press.
When you list the pages of the chapter or essay in parentheses after the book title, use "pp. This abbreviation, however, does not appear before the page numbers in periodical references, except for newspapers.
Men's and women's gender role journeys: Metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. Dictionary of the history of ideas Vols.
In The new encyclopedia britannica Vol. List the source the work was discussed in: Models of reading aloud:
Referencing is a system that allows you to acknowledge the contributions and work of others in your writing by citing your sources. A feature of academic writing is that it contains references to the words, information and ideas of others.
As a very rough guide, while the introduction and the conclusions to your writing might be largely based on your own ideas, within the main body of your report, essay or dissertation, you would expect to be drawing on, and thus referencing your debt to, the work of others in each main section or paragraph.
Italicize the name of the movie when referencing it in the the essay. Cite the movie in the references section using the tile of the movie, the format, the director, the year released into theaters, the location where the movie was filmed, the producer of the movie and the release date of the video copy. Harvard referencing. The HARVARD system cites the author's surname and year of publication in the text, e.g. (Bond, ), and provides a reference list (of these citations), in alphabetical order by author, at the end of the assignment.
When writing an essay, report, dissertation or other piece of academic work the key to referencing is organisation, keep notes of the books and journal articles you have read, the websites you have visited as part of your research process. No date was entered. APA requires n.p. be entered if the Year of publication is not known. If you wish to use [no date] then scroll down and click on Create Reference again to create a reference without a publication date. Alternatively enter the year of publication in YYYY format.