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The Complete Guide to MLA & Citations

How the Modern Language Association Helps You Become a Responsible Researcher

❶The other authors are accounted for by using et al.

A Deeper Look at Citations

MLA Sample Paper
Autocite a Conference in MLA Format
Citation Machine — Write Smarter, Cite Accurately

Musee de l'Orangerie, Paris, www. The collection which owns the image should be included in your citation along with its location as shown above. Musee de l'Orangerie, Paris. By Claire Fresches, et al. National Gallery of Art, If an image is untitled, create a brief, descriptive title for it. Do not italicize this title or place it in quotes, and capitalize only the first word and any proper nouns.

Seal of the society set in a landscape with ornaments. Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society , vol. Photograph of a horse running. The Father of the Motion Picture. To cite an interview you have conducted as part of your research, give the name of the person you interviewed, the type of interview, and the date or range of dates. Give the name of the person who wrote the email. The title is the subject line of the email. For "Received by," the name will usually be your own. Finish with the date of the email.

Student Login Faculty Login. Need the 7th Edition? OR A recent newspaper article demonstrated just how thoroughly the neighborhood's gruesome past has been forgotten by its residents Jackson.

A specific page Cortois 70 If the author's name is included in the text of the sentence where the citation takes place Jacobs has argued this point Multi-volume set Green 1: Citing multiple authors See Authors , below. Authors One author Example: Works Cited List Example: In-Text Citation Fontela, Pablo, et al. In-Text Citation "Hints and Notions. Titles Titles of books, periodicals, art works, reports and Web sites are italicized. Volume and Issue Numbers Volume and issue numbers are often not available for articles in online periodicals.

Online periodical where volume and issue numbers are not given Journal of Family Counseling , Page Numbers Source Example Page range whose first number is over not not Do not repeat any numbers that can be easily inferred by the reader. Online periodical where page numbers are not given Persuasions , vol. Simply omit page numbers and give the URL after the publication date.

Citing a Source within a Source Scenario: Wills cited in Robbins notes that Top Articles Academic Journals: Free Web Cohen, Lara Langer. In print Jordan, Stephanie. More info In-text citation examples General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc. Include volume and issue number example: Free Web Grossman, Lev. In print Aviv, Rachel. Free Web Brady, Heather. In print Beard, Alison. When an issue of a magazine covers several months, the name of the first and last month in the range should be given in the citation, separated by a dash, for example: Free Web Michaels, Andrew.

In print Brown, Patricia Leigh. Give the page number on which the material you've used appears in your in-text citation, for example: In print Grimes, William. If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses. In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using and underline or italicize the title , as each version varies in its translation, followed by book do not italicize or underline , chapter and verse.

Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited in another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source. With more and more scholarly work being posted on the Internet, you may have to cite research you have completed in virtual environments.

While many sources on the Internet should not be used for scholarly work reference the OWL's Evaluating Sources of Information resource , some Web sources are perfectly acceptable for research. When creating in-text citations for electronic, film, or Internet sources, remember that your citation must reference the source in your Works Cited.

Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers, but often, these sorts of entries do not require a page number in the parenthetical citation. For electronic and Internet sources, follow the following guidelines:. Filmverlag der Autoren, In the first example, the writer has chosen not to include the author name in-text; however, two entries from the same author appear in the Works Cited.

Russell, Tony, et al. To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference, separate the citations by a semi-colon:. When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference, like so Common sense and ethics should determine your need for documenting sources.

You do not need to give sources for familiar proverbs, well-known quotations or common knowledge. Remember that citing sources is a rhetorical task, and, as such, can vary based on your audience. If you're writing for an expert audience of a scholarly journal, for example, you may need to deal with expectations of what constitutes "common knowledge" that differ from common norms. Purdue Online Writing Lab. Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" Wordsworth Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process Human beings have been described by Kenneth Burke as "symbol-using animals" 3.

We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has "more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change. Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles 79; ch. Relativity's theoretical foundations can be traced to earlier work by Faraday and Maxwell Einstein Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children R. Miller 12 , others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration A.

Best and Marcus argue that one should read a text for what it says on its surface, rather than looking for some hidden meaning 9. According to Franck et al. The authors claim that one cause of obesity in the United States is government-funded farm subsidies Franck et al.

Accessed 27 May In addition to the author, there may be other contributors to the source who should be credited, such as editors, illustrators, translators, etc.

If their contributions are relevant to your research, or necessary to identify the source, include their names in your documentation. In the eighth edition, terms like editor, illustrator, translator, etc. A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Annotated and with an introduction by Vara Neverow, Harcourt, Inc. Crowley, Sharon, and Debra Hawhee. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students.

If a source is part of a numbered sequence, such as a multi-volume book, or journal with both volume and issue numbers, those numbers must be listed in your citation. Current Conditions and Future Directions.

The International Online-Only Journal, vol. Accessed 20 May The publisher produces or distributes the source to the public. Museum of Modern Art, New York. Problems of the Digestive System. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Daniels, Greg and Michael Schur, creators.

The same source may have been published on more than one date, such as an online version of an original source.

For example, a television series might have aired on a broadcast network on one date, but released on Netflix on a different date. When the source has more than one date, it is sufficient to use the date that is most relevant to your use of it.

This is the way to create a general citation for a television episode. However, if you are discussing, for example, the historical context in which the episode originally aired, you should cite the full date.

The location of an online work should include a URL. The eighth edition is designed to be as streamlined as possible. The author should include any information that helps readers easily identify the source, without including unnecessary information that may be distracting.

If a source has been published on more than one date, the writer may want to include both dates if it will provide the reader with necessary or helpful information.

The seventh edition handbook required the city in which a publisher is located, but the eighth edition states that this is only necessary in particular instances, such as in a work published before When you cite an online source, the MLA Handbook recommends including a date of access on which you accessed the material, since an online work may change or move at any time.

Accessed 4 May As mentioned above, while the eighth edition recommends including URLs when you cite online sources, you should always check with your instructor or editor and include URLs at their discretion.

MLA Formatting and Style Guide

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MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

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This resource contains a sample MLA paper that adheres to the updates. To download the MLA sample paper, select the MLA Sample Paper PDF file in the Media box above.

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EasyBib — your online writing hub All the tools to submit your paper with confidence. New. Our easy to read guide comes complete with visual examples and step by step instructions to format your citations and your paper in MLA style. Cite Anything and Everything in APA Format. Unpublished conference paper. Like a normal conference proceedings, we want to include the name of the entire proceedings, and if there is a specific presentation or paper .

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How to cite in an essay: what MLA and APA are Citing an essay: getting acquainted with MLA and APA. It doesn’t matter if you are just a high school student or you are already a professional writer: you should be able to cite the sources you use with a specific style of formatting. MLA offers no guidance on citing electronic conference papers of any kind. We have created this suggested proposed following guidance for print and other types of online sources. For papers found in library databases, we suggest that you use the URL of either the conference itself or the sponsoring organization, located via Google.