Before sampling, the population is divided into characteristics of importance for the research. For example, by gender, social class, education level, religion, etc. Then the population is randomly sampled within each category or stratum. How to Construct a probability representative sample. As they are not truly representative, non-probability samples are less desirable than probability samples.
However, a researcher may not be able to obtain a random or stratified sample, or it may be too expensive. A researcher may not care about generalizing to a larger population. The validity of non-probability samples can be increased by trying to approximate random selection, and by eliminating as many sources of bias as possible.
A researcher is interested in the attitudes of members of different religions towards the death penalty. In Iowa a random sample might miss Muslims because there are not many in that state. However, the sample will no longer be representative of the actual proportions in the population. This may limit generalizing to the state population.
But the quota will guarantee that the views of Muslims are represented in the survey. A subset of a purposive sample is a snowball sample -- so named because one picks up the sample along the way, analogous to a snowball accumulating snow. A snowball sample is achieved by asking a participant to suggest someone else who might be willing or appropriate for the study. Snowball samples are particularly useful in hard-to-track populations, such as truants, drug users, etc.
The target population for advertisements can be selected by characteristics like demography, age, gender, income, occupation, education level or interests using advertising tools provided by the social media sites. The advertisement may include a message about the research and will link to a web survey. After voluntary following the link and submitting the web based questionnaire, the respondent will be included in the sample population. This method can reach a global population and limited by the advertisement budget.
This method may permit volunteers outside the reference population to volunteer and get included in the sample. It is difficult to make generalizations about the total population from this sample because it would not be representative enough. Line-intercept sampling is a method of sampling elements in a region whereby an element is sampled if a chosen line segment, called a "transect", intersects the element.
Panel sampling is the method of first selecting a group of participants through a random sampling method and then asking that group for potentially the same information several times over a period of time. Therefore, each participant is interviewed at two or more time points; each period of data collection is called a "wave". The method was developed by sociologist Paul Lazarsfeld in as a means of studying political campaigns.
Panel sampling can also be used to inform researchers about within-person health changes due to age or to help explain changes in continuous dependent variables such as spousal interaction. Snowball sampling involves finding a small group of initial respondents and using them to recruit more respondents. It is particularly useful in cases where the population is hidden or difficult to enumerate. Theoretical sampling  occurs when samples are selected on the basis of the results of the data collected so far with a goal of developing a deeper understanding of the area or develop theories.
Sampling schemes may be without replacement 'WOR'—no element can be selected more than once in the same sample or with replacement 'WR'—an element may appear multiple times in the one sample. For example, if we catch fish, measure them, and immediately return them to the water before continuing with the sample, this is a WR design, because we might end up catching and measuring the same fish more than once.
However, if we do not return the fish to the water, this becomes a WOR design. If we tag and release the fish we caught, we can see whether we have caught a particular fish before. Sampling enables the selection of right data points from within the larger data set to estimate the characteristics of the whole population.
For example, there are about million tweets produced every day. It is not necessary to look at all of them to determine the topics that are discussed during the day, nor is it necessary to look at all the tweets to determine the sentiment on each of the topics. A theoretical formulation for sampling Twitter data has been developed. In manufacturing different types of sensory data such as acoustics, vibration, pressure, current, voltage and controller data are available at short time intervals.
To predict down-time it may not be necessary to look at all the data but a sample may be sufficient. Survey results are typically subject to some error. Total errors can be classified into sampling errors and non-sampling errors. The term "error" here includes systematic biases as well as random errors. Non-sampling errors are other errors which can impact the final survey estimates, caused by problems in data collection, processing, or sample design. After sampling, a review should be held of the exact process followed in sampling, rather than that intended, in order to study any effects that any divergences might have on subsequent analysis.
A particular problem is that of non-response. Two major types of non-response exist: In this case, there is a risk of differences, between respondents and nonrespondents, leading to biased estimates of population parameters. This is often addressed by improving survey design, offering incentives, and conducting follow-up studies which make a repeated attempt to contact the unresponsive and to characterize their similarities and differences with the rest of the frame.
Nonresponse is particularly a problem in internet sampling. Reasons for this problem include improperly designed surveys,  over-surveying or survey fatigue ,   and the fact that potential participants hold multiple e-mail addresses, which they don't use anymore or don't check regularly. In many situations the sample fraction may be varied by stratum and data will have to be weighted to correctly represent the population. Thus for example, a simple random sample of individuals in the United Kingdom might include some in remote Scottish islands who would be inordinately expensive to sample.
A cheaper method would be to use a stratified sample with urban and rural strata. The rural sample could be under-represented in the sample, but weighted up appropriately in the analysis to compensate. More generally, data should usually be weighted if the sample design does not give each individual an equal chance of being selected. For instance, when households have equal selection probabilities but one person is interviewed from within each household, this gives people from large households a smaller chance of being interviewed.
This can be accounted for using survey weights. Similarly, households with more than one telephone line have a greater chance of being selected in a random digit dialing sample, and weights can adjust for this. Random sampling by using lots is an old idea, mentioned several times in the Bible. In Pierre Simon Laplace estimated the population of France by using a sample, along with ratio estimator.
He also computed probabilistic estimates of the error. His estimates used Bayes' theorem with a uniform prior probability and assumed that his sample was random. Alexander Ivanovich Chuprov introduced sample surveys to Imperial Russia in the s. In the USA the Literary Digest prediction of a Republican win in the presidential election went badly awry, due to severe bias . More than two million people responded to the study with their names obtained through magazine subscription lists and telephone directories.
It was not appreciated that these lists were heavily biased towards Republicans and the resulting sample, though very large, was deeply flawed. The textbook by Groves et alia provides an overview of survey methodology, including recent literature on questionnaire development informed by cognitive psychology:. The other books focus on the statistical theory of survey sampling and require some knowledge of basic statistics, as discussed in the following textbooks:.
The historically important books by Deming and Kish remain valuable for insights for social scientists particularly about the U. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For computer simulation, see pseudo-random number sampling. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. How to conduct your own survey. Model Assisted Survey Sampling. The" panel" as a new tool for measuring opinion. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 2 4 , — Analysis of Sampling Algorithms for Twitter. International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence.
Survey nonresponse in design, data collection, and analysis. Internet, mail, and mixed-mode surveys: The tailored design method. Nonresponse in web surveys. New directions for institutional research pp. Moore and George P. Mean arithmetic geometric harmonic Median Mode. Central limit theorem Moments Skewness Kurtosis L-moments. Grouped data Frequency distribution Contingency table. Pearson product-moment correlation Rank correlation Spearman's rho Kendall's tau Partial correlation Scatter plot.
Sampling stratified cluster Standard error Opinion poll Questionnaire. Observational study Natural experiment Quasi-experiment. Z -test normal Student's t -test F -test. Bayesian probability prior posterior Credible interval Bayes factor Bayesian estimator Maximum posterior estimator. Pearson product-moment Partial correlation Confounding variable Coefficient of determination. Simple linear regression Ordinary least squares General linear model Bayesian regression.
Regression Manova Principal components Canonical correlation Discriminant analysis Cluster analysis Classification Structural equation model Factor analysis Multivariate distributions Elliptical distributions Normal. Spectral density estimation Fourier analysis Wavelet Whittle likelihood.
Cartography Environmental statistics Geographic information system Geostatistics Kriging. Category Portal Commons WikiProject. Categorical data Contingency table Level of measurement Descriptive statistics Exploratory data analysis Multivariate statistics Psychometrics Statistical inference Statistical models Graphical Log-linear Structural. Audience measurement Demography Market research Opinion poll Public opinion.
Retrieved from " https: In probability samples, each member of the population has a known non-zero probability of being selected. Probability methods include random sampling, systematic sampling, and stratified sampling. In nonprobability sampling, members are selected from the population in some nonrandom manner.
These include convenience sampling, judgment sampling, quota sampling, and snowball sampling. The advantage of probability sampling is that sampling error can be calculated. Sampling error is the degree to which a sample might differ from the population. When inferring to the population, results are reported plus or minus the sampling error. In nonprobability sampling, the degree to which the sample differs from the population remains unknown. Random sampling is the purest form of probability sampling.
Each member of the population has an equal and known chance of being selected. When there are very large populations, it is often difficult or impossible to identify every member of the population, so the pool of available subjects becomes biased. Systematic sampling is often used instead of random sampling. It is also called an Nth name selection technique. After the required sample size has been calculated, every Nth record is selected from a list of population members.
As long as the list does not contain any hidden order, this sampling method is as good as the random sampling method. Its only advantage over the random sampling technique is simplicity.
Choosing a sampling method. Techniques > Research > Sampling > Choosing a sampling method. Probability | Quota | Selective | Convenience | Ethnographic | See also. There are many methods of sampling when doing research. This guide can help you choose which method to use.
Sampling Methods. Sampling and types of sampling methods commonly used in quantitative research are discussed in the following module. Learning Objectives: Define sampling and randomization. Explain probability and non-probability sampling and describes the different types of each.
Assumptions of qualitative samplingSocial actors are not predictablelike objects. Randomized events are irrelevant to social life. Probability sampling is expensive Therefore and inefficient. Non-probability sampling is the best approach. Types of samples Sampling is the process of selecting units (e.g., people, organizations) from a population of interest so that by studying the sample we may fairly generalize our results back to .
Multistage Sampling (in which some of the methods above are combined in stages) Of the five methods listed above, students have the most trouble distinguishing between stratified sampling and cluster sampling. Once you know your population, sampling frame, sampling method, and sample size, you can use all that information to choose your sample. Importance As you can see, choosing a sample is a.