Still today in western countries exist socialist parties, who look to achieve total or partial socialism for their nation, so they do not have to worry about the problems associated with capitalism. Years later, Karl Marx and his philosophies infulenced later leaders which gave rise to Communism in the world, which then started a political war with Capitalism.
One of Marx's main theories was his critical assault on the capitalist system. The capitalist system being based on private ownership of the means of production, which gives the power to very few. Marx himself mounted a full scale attack on the the theories, institutions, and philosophies of industrial capitalism.
His main argument was that capitalism was irrational. Marx did agree that the capitalist system was unparalleled at the method of production it used.
However, under that same system, the problem existed of how to distribute the products its factories have made. The fact was that under a capitalist system, production was meant to make a profit, not to satisfy the needs of the society. Marx stated that as long as those products being produced, were making a profit, they will remain being produced, no matter whether the public demanded that product, or not.
Also with the capitalist system, came competition. This drove the capitalists to cut the costs as much as possible. This is done through cutting the wages of the laborers. It is then evident that the public could no longer afford even the products they themselves produce. Also with competition, came the desire of the capitalist to increase volume, in the idea of grasping a larger portion of the market.
This increased volume of product lead to a viscous circle, which includes overproduction, leading to lay-offs, periods of depression and recession.
With this viscous circle, that is brought by capitalism, comes economic misery for all of society. Karl Marx also had a theory which described the workers in the capitalist system.
Marx used the term alienation of labour in describing what effects are felt by the labourers under a capitalist system. He believed that laborers needed productive, gratifying work in order to remain happy. Marx stated that under a capitalist system laborers did not have a chance to develop their mental and physical capacities, something that Marx felt was essential while working. He also believed that man should not only labour as an individual, but for society as well.
The great German scientist Karl Marx has left a deep mark in all social sciences, but first of all he was an economist, because the main object of his research was the political economy. Moreover, Marx deduced his rejection of capitalism not from moral indignation, anger and protest, which were undoubtedly caused by a capitalist society. He argued that capitalism would perish because of its inherent objective contradictions that cannot be resolved without changing the overall economic and social structure.
In the framework of Marxist political economy a theory of surplus value was created. The concept of surplus value based on valuation, as materialized labor, which suggests that the value of the goods does not depend on supply and demand but is determined by the amount of invested labor. Marx also advanced the theory of class struggle. Class struggle is the struggle between social classes, whose interests are inconsistent or contradictory. Class struggle is the main content and the driving force of history of all antagonistic class societies.
The logical conclusion from this theory is the need to recognize dictatorship of the proletariat as an instrument of its class struggle and the social transformation of society. Dialectical materialism is the direction in philosophy, which focuses on the relation of being and thinking and the most general laws of being and thinking. According to the basic provisions of the Marxist philosophy, dialectical materialism asserts the ontological primacy of matter with respect to consciousness and the continuous development of matter in time.
Actually, society social structure is a combination of base and superstructure. In so doing, they use the forces or means of production. In the earliest stages of human history, these forces were just unaided human labour, but over time people develop tools, machines and so on to assist in production i.
In working to meet their needs, humans also cooperate with one another: Over time, as the forces of production grow and develop, so do the social relations of production change. In particular, a division of labour develops, and this eventually gives rise to a division between two social classes: From then on, production is directed by the ruling class to meet their own needs.
Marx argued that in any class-based society — be it ancient, feudal or capitalist — one group gained at the expense of the other. According to Marx, capitalist society — such as the one we live in — is based on the division between two main classes — the Bourgeoisie ruling class and the Proletariat subject class.
The ruling class or capitalist class own and control the means of production, whereas the subject class or wage-labourers own nothing but their capacity to produce goods and services. These wage-labourers sometimes crudely referred to as working class are employed by the ruling class in return for a wage in order to produce goods and services that the ruling class can make a profit from.
It works like this: The excess or surplus is appropriated taken away by the ruling class through the process of exploitation. Basically, the workers are paid less than the true value of the good that they produce. Following on from this, capitalism continually expands the forces of production in its pursuit of increasing profit.
Production becomes concentrated in ever-larger units e. Such technological advances de-skill the workforce. Together with increasing concentration of ownership, class polarisation is the result i.
Marx argues that under capitalism, workers experience alienation because they have no control and the increasing division of labour means that work becomes a futile, meaningless activity. The principal reason workers are unaware of the true nature of their situation is due to false-class consciousness which is explained through ideology — a set of values and beliefs that justify legitimise the existing social order as inevitable, entirely acceptable and indeed, even desirable.
This is because the capitalist mode of production which forms the economic base of society shapes or determines all other features of society — the superstructure of institutions, ideas, beliefs and behaviour that arise from this base.
For example, it shapes the nature of religion, law, education, the state and so on. According to Marx, capitalism sows the seeds of its own destruction. For example, by polarising the classes, bringing the proletariat together in ever-increasing numbers, and driving down their wages, capitalism creates the conditions under which the working class can develop a consciousness or awareness of its own economic and political interests in opposition to those of its exploiters.
Free marxism papers, essays, and research papers. Marxism and Leninism - Marxism and Leninism According to most historians, “history is told by the victors”, which would explain why most people equate communism with Vladimir Lenin.
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However, there are differences between Marxists especially over the way which social change can come about. For example, humanistic Marxists like Gramsci give a greater role to the conscious decisions and actions of human beings than do structural Marxists like Althusser, for whom social change comes as the product of changes within the . Mar 12, · Free Essays from Bartleby | Describe the Marxist approach to the media and discuss its strengths and weaknesses (In modern society the main influence over.
Essays on Marxism. The Marxism is one of the most popular assignments among students' documents. If you are stuck with writing or missing ideas, scroll down and find inspiration in the best samples. Marxism is quite a rare and popular topic for writing an essay, but it certainly is in our database. Marxism and Structuralism: • Marx concerned with causes of conflict in society and believed that it was the result of struggle between different socio-economic classes. • saying capitalism as a bondage from which people strive to be liberated. • Theory of history based on historical materialism, where the system of economic production .